Here are a list of scientific studies in peer reviewed journals on the benefits of antioxidants:
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Scientific Studies Which Support Isotonix OPC-3Â®:
Bayeta, E., et al. Pycnogenol inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Nutrition Research 20: 249-259, 2000.
BlazsÃ³, G., et al. Anti-inflammatory and superoxide radical scavenging activities of a procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. and its fractions. Pharm Pharmacol Lett 3: 217-20, 1994
Cesarone, M., et al. Improvement in Circulation and in Cardiovascular Risk Factors With a Proprietary Isotonic Bioflavanoid Formula OPC-3. Journal Angiology 59: 408-414, 2008.
Cho, K., et al. Effect of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on proinflammatory cytokine interlukin-1 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264. 7. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 168: 64-71, 2000.
Cho, K., et al. Inhibition mechanisms of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Annals of the NYAcademy of Sciences 928: 141-156, 2001.
Devaraj, S., et al. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids 37:931-4, 2002.
Fine, AM, Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Altern Med Rev 5:144-51, 2000.
Fitzpatrick, D., et al. Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 32: 509-515, 1998.
Frankel, E., et al. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 341: 454-7, 1993.
Freedman, J., et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation 103:2792-8, 2001.
FrÃ©mont, L. Biological effects of resveratrol. Life Sciences 66: 663-673, 2000.
Gulati, O. PycnogenolÂ® in venous disorders: a review. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 1-13, 1999.
Hosseini, S., et al. PycnogenolÂ® in the management of asthma. Journal of Medicinal Food 4: 201-209, 2001. HHHh
Kohama, T., et al. The treatment of gynecological disorders with PycnogenolÂ®. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 30-32, 1999.
Kohama, T., et al. Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 49: 828-32, 2004.
Liu, X., et al. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci 75:2505-13, 2004.
Liu, X., et al. French maritime pine bark extract pycnogenol dose-dependently lowers glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 27: 839, 2004.
Manna, S., et al. Resveratrol suppresses TNF-Induced activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kB, activator protein-1, and apoptosis: potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation. The Journal of Immunology 164: 6509-19, 2000.
Maritim, A., et al. Effects of pycnogenol treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:193-9, 2003.
Miyagi, Y., et al. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice. Am J Cardiol 0:1627-31, 1997.
Monograph. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry). Altern Med Rev 6:500-4, 2001.
Murias M., et al. Resveratrol analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationship. Bioorg Med Chem 12: 5571-8, 2004.
Nuttall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. J Clin Pharm Ther 23: 385-89, 1998.
Packer, L., et al. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med 27:704-24, 1999. Review.
Rohdewald, P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (PycnogenolÂ®), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:158-68, 2002. Review.
Rohdewald, P. PycnogenolÂ®. In "Flavonoids in Health and Disease". Ed. Catherine Rice-Evans and Lester Packer. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998. 405-19.
Roseff, S., et al. Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. Journal Reproductive Medicine 47: 821-4, 2002.
Roseff, S., et al. Improvement of sperm quality by PycnogenolÂ®. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 33-6, 1999.
Saito, M., et al. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1460-4, 1998.
SchÃ¶nlau, F., et al. PycnogenolÂ® for diabetic retinopathy. International Ophthalmology 24: 161-171, 2002.
SchÃ¶nlau, F., et al. The cosmeceutical PycnogenolÂ®. J Appl Cosmetology 20: 241-6, 2002.
Segger, D. and SchÃ¶nlau, F. Supplementation with EvelleÂ® improves skin smoothness and elasticity in a double blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 women. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 15:222-26, 2004.
Shi, J., et al. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food 6:291-9, 2003. Review.
Sharma, S., et al. PycnogenolÂ® inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytotherapy Research 17: 66-69, 2003.
Spadea, L., et al. Treatment of vascular retinopathies with PycnogenolÂ®. Phytotherapy Research 15: 219-23, 2001.
Stein, J., et al. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 100:1050-5, 1999.
Takada, Y., et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents differ in their ability to suppress NF-kappaB activation, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1, and abrogation of tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene 23: 9247-58, 2004.
Ueda, T., et al. Preventative effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in the mammalian eye. Ophthalmic Res 28: 184-92, 1996.
Wallerath, T., et al. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 106:1652-8, 2002.
Watson, R. PycnogenolÂ® and cardiovascular health. Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine 1: 27-32, 2003.
Wei, Z., et al. Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defense. Redox Report 3: 219-24, 1997.
Yamakoshi, J., et al. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 142:139-149, 1999.
Ames, BN, et al. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7915-7922, 1993.
Bagchi, D, et al. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 95:179-89, 1997.
Bagchi, D, et al. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148: 187-97, 2000.
Bagchi, D, et al. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seed. Ann NY Acad Sci 957:260-70, 2002.
Cao G, Alessio H, Cultler R. Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assay for antioxidants. Fre Rad Biol & Med 14:301-11, 1993.
Drew B, Leeuwenburgh C. Aging and the role of reactive nitrogen species. Ann NY Acad Sci 959:66-81, 2002.
Gibson, L, et al. Effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract infections in long-term care facility patients. J Naturopathic Med 2:45-47, 1991.
Graham DY, Smith JL, Bouvet, AA. What happens to tablets in the stomach. J Pharm Sci 79:420-24, 1990.
Havsteen B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharm 32:1141-48, 1983.
Halpern, MJ, et al. Red wine polyphenols and inhibition of platelet aggregation: possible mechanisms, and potential use in health promotion and disease prevention. J Int Med Res 26:171-80, 1998.
Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinksi D, Martin A, McEwen JJ, Bickford PC. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neuroscience 19: 8114-21, 1999.
Kay CD, Holub BJ. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on post-prandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects. Br J Nutr 88: 389-98, 2002.
Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 23:21-48, 1993.
Koch R. Comparative study of Venostatin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res 16:S1-5, 2002.
Koparker AD, Augsburger LL, Shangraw RF. Intrinsic dissolution rates of tablet fillers and binders and their influence on the dissolution of drugs from tablet formulations. Pharm Res 7:80-85, 1990.
Mazza G, Kay CD, Cottrell T, Holub BJ. Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 50:7731-37, 2002.
Nesaretnam K, et al. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids 30:1139-43, 1995.
Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, Lis H, Sharon N. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesion activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. New England J Med 324:1599, 1991.
Qureshi, A, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 30:1171-77, 1995.
Rimbach G, Virgili F, Park YC, Packer L. Effect of procyanidins from Pinus maritime on glutathione levels in endothelial cells challenged by 3-morpholinosydnonimine or activated macrophages. Redox Rep 4:171-77, 1999.
Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infactions. J Urology 131:1013-1016, 1984.
Soloway MS, Smith RA. J Am Med Assoc 260:1465, 1988.
Tomco, A, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienol in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 30: 1179-83, 1995.
Zheng W, Wang SY. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. J Agric Food Chem 51:502-9, 2003.
Wilson D et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms. Phytother Res. 24(8):1115-9, 2010.
Lau B et al. Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma. J Asthma. 41(8):825-32, 2004.
Choi YH, Yan GH. PycnogenolÂ® inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in mast cells. Phytother Res 23: 1691-1695, 2009.
Sharma SC, Sharma S, Gulati OP. PycnogenolÂ® inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytother Res, 17: 66-69, 2003.
Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S, Sadrzadeh MH, Farid F, Farid R, Watson RR. PycnogenolÂ® in the management of asthma. J Med Food 4: 201-209, 2001.
Cheshier, J.E et al. Immunomodulation by PycnogenolÂ® in retro-virus infected or ethanol-fed mice. Life Sci., 58(5): 87-96, 1996.
Park, Y.C., Rimbach, G., Saliou, C., Valacchi, G. and Packer, L. Activity of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric flavonoids on NO production, TNF-alpha secretion, and NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. FEBS Letters, 465: 93-97, 2000.
Rice-Evans CA, Packer L, eds. Flavonoids in Health and Disease. Manhattan, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998.
Liu, F.J., Zhang, Y.X. and Lau B.H.S. PycnogenolÂ® enhances immune and haemopoietic functions in senescence-accelerated mice.CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life. Sci., 54: 1168-1172, 1998.